Russian cuisine has a very rich and, if I may say so, tangled history. It has taken a long, thousand-year path of development. However, in the form in which it has reached our days, it finally formed a little more than a hundred years ago, in the second half of the XIX century. It constantly absorbed the recipes of different peoples, often remade them in its own way, something “peeked” and took notes.
Old Russian cuisine.
The meal books of the largest Russian monasteries, preserved since the end of the 16th century, can tell us about it. It was based on bread, flour products and grain dishes. Already in the IX century, that sour rye black bread on kvass sourdough appears, which becomes the national Russian bread.
Pies received a special development. Products in the dough cover, with a variety of fillings – fish, meat, poultry and game, mushrooms, cottage cheese, vegetables, berries, fruits.
Kashi – spelt, buckwheat, rye, barley – was made everywhere, especially at church.
Already in the early Middle Ages there was a clear and sharp division of the Russian table into lean (vegetable-fish-mushroom) and lean (dairy-egg-meat).
Cabbage, turnips, radish, peas, cucumbers – vegetables, known since the IX century – if not eaten raw, then salted, steamed, boiled or baked, and separately from each other. Therefore, such dishes as salads have never been characteristic of Russian cuisine, they appeared in Russia already in the 19th century as one of the borrowings from the West.
Thus, the number of dishes in the XV century was huge in names, but in content they differed little from one another.
Over a relatively short period of time, in seven decades, it evolved into the all-Russian cuisine. Siberians and Uralians brought to the life of Muscovites dumplings and shanezhniki, Belarusians and Ukrainians – salted pork fat. The Baltic republics brought cheesecakes and other dairy dishes, while Ukraine brought vareniks and especially borscht, which in some places even supplanted the Central Russian cabbage soup. On holidays there could be homemade dumplings, goose or duck stuffed with sour antonovka apples, chicken noodles and, of course, pies – kulebyaki with mushrooms and eggs.
It is the result of a long transformation of the ancient cuisine of the inhabitants of Russia. It also adopts modern achievements of cuisines all over the world.